In the present study, we describe for the first time the distribution of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms in the human postmortem hypothalamus and anterior pituitary using immunocytochemistry. We used a set of polyclonal antisera raised against the specific isoforms of the human TR. The distribution of TR alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1, and beta 2 was studied in consecutive sections of six hypothalami and pituitaries. Staining intensity showed strong interindividual variation but was consistently present in the infundibular nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, and supraoptic nucleus. In addition, strong TR immunoreactivity was observed in the anterior pituitary. Neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin mRNA-positive cells in the infundibular nucleus, which were studied in three other hypothalami, appeared not to express TRs, and thus, the neurons expressing TRs in the human mediobasal hypothalamus remain to be characterized.