The ultrastructure of septa and septum-associated septal pore caps are important taxonomic markers in the Agaricomycotina (Basidiomycota, Fungi). The septal pore caps covering the typical basidiomycetous dolipore septum are divided into three main phenotypically recognized morphotypes: vesicular-tubular (including the vesicular, sacculate, tubular, ampulliform, and globular morphotypes), imperforate, and perforate. Until recently, the septal pore cap-type reflected the higher-order relationships within the Agaricomycotina. However, the new classification of Fungi resulted in many changes including revision of existing and addition of new orders. Therefore, the septal pore cap ultrastructure of more than 325 species as reported in literature was related to this new classification. In addition, the septal pore cap ultrastructures of Rickenella fibula and Cantharellus formosus were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Both fungi have dolipore septa associated with perforate septal pore caps. These results combined with data from the literature show that the septal pore cap-type within orders of the Agaricomycotina is generally monomorphic, except for the Cantharellales and Hymenochaetales It appears from the fungal phylogeny combined with the septal pore cap ultrastructure that the vesicular-tubular and the imperforate type both may have arisen from endoplasmic reticulum. Thereafter, the imperforate type eventually gave rise to the perforate septal pore cap-type.