Olfactometer tests with Asobara tabida (Nees 1834), a larval endo-parasitoid of frugivorous Drosophilidae showed that females are attracted to the odour of host food: a suspension of living yeast. This attraction decreased as the fermenting medium grew older and became less likely to contain suitable host stages. Olfactometer tests with — what was considered to be — A. tabida from two different microhabitats (fermenting fruits and decaying plants) showed a genetically determined difference in microhabitat odour preference between the two microhabitat lsquostrainsrsquo. Each lsquostrainrsquo preferred the odour of its own microhabitat. This odour preference was not modified by larval conditioning. Hybridization tests indicated that we were dealing with two sibling species: A. tabida and A. rufescens (Foerster 1862), reproductively isolated by a pre-mating isolation mechanism only. Enforced matings resulted in fertile female offspring. Some small morphological differences were detected. The two species live sympatrically, although each inhabits and is most attracted to its own microhabitat.