XML/TEI Stand-off Markup. One step beyond

E. Spadini, Magdalena Turska

Research output: Contribution to journal/periodicalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
205 Downloads (Pure)


Stand-off markup is widely considered as a possible solution for overcoming the limitation of inline XML markup, primarily dealing with multiple overlapping hierarchies. Considering previous contributions on the subject and implementations of stand-off markup, we propose a new TEI-based model for encoding, that still uses the regular TEI elements, but in a stand-off manner. Our light notation moves the bulk of markup into a separate <standoff> element, grouping layers of related textual features encoded via existing TEI elements (eg. <name> or <corr>) into individual <stf> elements; furthermore, our proposed notation provides a schema for referencing the transcription using the xml:id attribute. This approach is illustrated through a variety of examples. Our proof-of-concept transformation package works directly on the stand-off markup, without the necessity of reducing it back to inline TEI for parsing, querying and visualizing.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)225-239
JournalDigital Philology: A Journal of Medieval Cultures
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • XML
  • standoff
  • markup
  • overlap


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