Even in present-day high-income countries, there is a lot of evidence of a high degree of vulnerability of the population to both high and low outdoor temperatures. The magnitude of temperature-related mortality is strongly related to a wide variety of social, economic, and behavioural factors. To gain insight into the changing impact of cold and heat on mortality, we analyze Dutch individual death records in relation to daily temperature for the period 1855-2006 for one of the 11 Dutch provinces. Making use of negative binomial regression analysis, we study whether the effect of temperature varied by age, sex and social class, and analyze the changes in the vulnerability to temperature fluctuations.
Ekamper, P., van Poppel, F. W. A., van Duin, C., & Garssen, J. (2009). 150 Years of temperature-related excess mortality in the Netherlands. Demographic Research, 21(14), 385-426. https://doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2009.21.14