Fungal pathogens produce a broad array of secondary metabolites (SMs), which allow the fungus to thrive in its natural habitat and gain competitive advantage. Analysis of the genetically encoded blueprints for SM assembly highlighted that only a small portion of the SMs these fungi are capable of producing are known, and even fewer have been investigated for their natural function. Using molecular tools, a lot of progress has been made recently in identifying the blueprint products and linking them to their ecological purpose such as the peptide virulence factor fusaoctaxin A released by Fusarium graminearum during infection of wheat or the F. oxysporum polyketide bikaverin that provides competitive advantage against bacteria in tomato. In addition, population genomics have given particularly important insights into the species-specific plasticity of the SM blueprint arsenal, showcasing the ongoing evolution and adaptation of fungal pathogens. This approach holds promise in inferring roles in pathogenicity of many more fungal SMs.