Allelochaeta (Sporocadaceae): pigmentation lost and gained
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The appendaged coelomycete genus Seimatosporium (Sporocadaceae, Sordariomycetes) and some of its purported synonyms Allelochaeta, Diploceras and Vermisporium are re-evaluated. Based on DNA data for five loci (ITS, LSU, rpb2, tub2 and tef1), Seimatosporium is shown to be paraphyletic. The ex-type species of Allelochaeta, Discostromopsis and Vermisporium represent a distinct sister clade to which the oldest name Allelochaeta is applied. These genera were traditionally separated based on a combination of conidial pigmentation, septation, and the nature of their conidial appendages. Allelochaeta is revealed to include taxa with both branched or solitary appendages, that could be cellular or continuous, with conidia being (2–)3(–5)-septate, hyaline, or pigmented, concolourous or versicolourous. This suggests that these characters should be applied at species, and not at the generic level. Conidial pigmentation appears to have been lost or gained several times during the evolution of species within Allelochaeta. In total, 25 new species, 15 new combinations, and 10 new epitypifications are proposed.