A new species belonging to Aspergillus section Cremei is described, A. europaeus sp. nov. This species is most closely related to A. wentii, A. dimorphicus, and A. chrysellus and can be distinguished by an unique phenotype (colour of sporulation, production of yellow soluble pigment on MEA, shape of vesicle, ornamentation of conidia), specific spectrum of produced exometabolites and internal transcribed spacers (ITS), β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequence data. In total, 18 isolates were identified which originated from soil (n = 14), cork (n = 2), indoor air (n = 1) and clinical material (n = 1) in the Czech Republic, Romania, Spain, Portugal, France and Tunisia. All strains were first identified by morphological characters as A. wentii or A. tamarii suggesting that A. europaeus is a common species but it has been overlooked and frequently misidentified. The ex-type strain is CCF 4409T = CBS 134393T = IBT 32228T = NRRL 66252T.