The genus Neocosmospora (Fusarium solani species complex) contains saprobes, plant endophytes and pathogens of major economic significance as well as opportunistic animal pathogens. Advances in biological and phylogenetic species recognition revealed a rich species diversity which has largely remained understudied. Most of the currently recognised species lack formal descriptions and Latin names, while the taxonomic utility of old names is hampered by the lack of nomenclatural type specimens. Therefore, to stabilise the taxonomy and nomenclature of these important taxa, we examined type specimens and representative cultures of several old names by means of morphology and phylogenetic analyses based on rDNA (ITS and LSU), rpb2 and tef1 sequences. Sixty-eight species are accepted in Neocosmospora, 29 of them described herein as new; while 13 new combinations are made. Eleven additional phylogenetic species are recognized, but remain as yet undescribed. Lectotypes are proposed for eight species, seven species are epitypified and two species are neotypified. Notes on an additional 17 doubtful or excluded taxa are provided.