Biodiversity in the Cladosporium herbarum complex (Davidiellaceae, Capnodiales), with standardisation of methods for Cladosporium taxonomy and diagnostics

K. Schubert, J.Z. Groenewald, U. Braun, J. Dijksterhuis, M. Starink, C.F. Hill, P. Zalar, Sybren de Hoog, P.W. Crous

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    The Cladosporium herbarum complex comprises five species for which Davidiella teleomorphs are known. Cladosporium herbarum s. str. (D. tassiana), C. macrocarpum (D. macrocarpa) and C. bruhnei (D. allicina) are distinguishable by having conidia of different width, and by teleomorph characters. Davidiella variabile is introduced as teleomorph of C. variabile, a homothallic species occurring on Spinacia, and D. macrospora is known to be the teleomorph of C. iridis on Iris spp. The C. herbarum complex combines low molecular distance with a high degree of clonal or inbreeding diversity. Entities differ from each other by multilocus sequence data and by phenetic differences, and thus can be interpreted to represent individual taxa. Isolates of the C. herbarum complex that were formerly associated with opportunistic human infections, cluster with C. bruhnei. Several species are newly described from hypersaline water, namely C. ramotenellum, C. tenellum, C. subinflatum, and C. herbaroides. Cladosporium pseudiridis collected from Iris sp. in New Zealand, is also a member of this species complex and shown to be distinct from C. iridis that occurs on this host elsewhere in the world. A further new species from New Zealand is C. sinuosum on Fuchsia excorticata. Cladosporium antarcticum is newly described from a lichen, Caloplaca regalis, collected in Antarctica, and C. subtilissimum from grape berries in the U.S.A., while the new combination C. ossifragi, the oldest valid name of the Cladosporium known from Narthecium in Europe, is proposed. Standard protocols and media are herewith proposed to facilitate future morphological examination of Cladosporium spp. in culture, and neotypes or epitypes are proposed for all species treated.
    Originele taal-2Engels
    Pagina's (van-tot)105-156
    TijdschriftStudies in Mycology
    Volume58
    DOI's
    StatusGepubliceerd - 2007

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