A literature-based checklist of species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces recorded in the Brazilian tropical dry forest (Caatinga), the largest tropical dry forest region in South America, is provided. A total of 130 species (60 Aspergillus, 57 Penicillium, and 13 Talaromyces) are reported. Soil was the most common substrate, with 122 species records. Various reported species are well known in biotechnological processes. This checklist reflects the limited knowledge of fungal species in tropical dry environments. These data provide a good starting point for biogeographical studies on species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces in dry environments worldwide. In addition, the new species Penicillium vascosobrinhous is introduced, an endophytic fungus isolated from cactus of the Caatinga forest in Brazil.