Axonemal dynein ATPases direct ciliary and flagellar beating via adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. The modulatory effect of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) on flagellar beating is not fully understood. Here, we describe a deficiency of cilia and flagella associated protein 45 (CFAP45) in humans and mice that presents a motile ciliopathy featuring situs inversus totalis and asthenospermia. CFAP45-deficient cilia and flagella show normal morphology and axonemal ultrastructure. Proteomic profiling links CFAP45 to an axonemal module including dynein ATPases and adenylate kinase as well as CFAP52, whose mutations cause a similar ciliopathy. CFAP45 binds AMP in vitro, consistent with structural modelling that identifies an AMP-binding interface between CFAP45 and AK8. Microtubule sliding of dyskinetic sperm from Cfap45-/- mice is rescued with the addition of either AMP or ADP with ATP, compared to ATP alone. We propose that CFAP45 supports mammalian ciliary and flagellar beating via an adenine nucleotide homeostasis module.