Phylogenetic relationships were determined for 45 Colletotrichum isolates causing anthracnose disease of chili in Queensland, Australia. Initial screening based on morphology, ITS and TUB2 genes resulted in a subset of 21 isolates being chosen for further taxonomic study. Isolates in the C. acutatum complex were analysed using partial sequences of six gene regions (ITS, GAPDH, ACT, CHS-1, TUB2 and HIS3), and in the C. gloeosporioides complex were analysed using four gene regions (ITS, TUB2, ApMat and GS). Phylogenetic analysis delineated four Colletotrichum species including C. siamense, C. simmondsii, C. queenslandicum, C. truncatum and a new Colletotrichum species, described here as C. cairnsense sp. nov. This is the first reported association of C. queenslandicum, C. simmondsii and C. siamense with chili anthracnose in Australia; these species were previously associated with anthracnose on papaya and avocado. Furthermore, the dominant species causing anthracnose of chili in Southeast Asia, C. scovillei, was not detected in Australia. Inoculations on chili fruit confirmed the pathogenicity of C. cairnsense and the other four species in the development of chili anthracnose in Australia.