Colletotrichum spp. are important pathogens of citrus that cause dieback of branches and postharvest disease. Globally, several species of Colletotrichum have been identified as causing anthracnose of citrus. One hundred and sixty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were collected from anthracnose symptoms on citrus stems, leaves, and fruit from Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland, and from State herbaria in Australia. Colletotrichum australianum sp. nov., C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. karstii, C. siamense, and C. theobromicola were identified using multi-gene phylogenetic analyses based on seven genomic loci (ITS, gapdh, act, tub2, ApMat, gs, and chs-1) in the gloeosporioides complex and five genomic loci (ITS, tub2, act, chs-1, and his3) in the boninense complex, as well as morphological characters. Several isolates pathogenic to chili (Capsicum annuum), previously identified as C. queenslandicum, formed a clade with the citrus isolates described here as C. australianum sp. nov. The spore shape and culture characteristics of the chili and citrus isolates of C. australianum were similar and differed from those of C. queenslandicum. This is the first report of C. theobromicola isolated from citrus and the first detection of C. karstii and C. siamense associated with citrus anthracnose in Australia.