We investigated for the first time the proteomic profiles both in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) patients. Cryostat sections of DLPFC and ACC of MDD and BD patients with their respective well-matched controls were used for study. Proteins were quantified by tandem mass tag and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system. Gene Ontology terms and functional cluster alteration were analyzed through bioinformatic analysis. Over 3000 proteins were accurately quantified, with more than 100 protein expressions identified as significantly changed in these two brain areas of MDD and BD patients as compared to their respective controls. These include OGDH, SDHA and COX5B in the DLPFC in MDD patients; PFN1, HSP90AA1 and PDCD6IP in the ACC of MDD patients; DBN1, DBNL and MYH9 in the DLPFC in BD patients. Impressively, depending on brain area and distinct diseases, the most notable change we found in the DLPFC of MDD was 'suppressed energy metabolism'; in the ACC of MDD it was 'suppressed tissue remodeling and suppressed immune response'; and in the DLPFC of BD it was differentiated 'suppressed tissue remodeling and suppressed neuronal projection'. In summary, there are distinct proteomic changes in different brain areas of the same mood disorder, and in the same brain area between MDD and BD patients, which strengthens the distinct pathogeneses and thus treatment targets.