Vineyards are a very important perennial woody crop globally, but they are also among the most intensively managed agroecosystems. This has resulted in biologically impoverished and highly eroded vineyards. Environmentally-friendly inter-row vegetation management, particularly the use of cover crops, could contribute to avoid erosion and regenerate soil biodiversity in vineyards. In this study, we updated a global meta-analysis on the effects of inter-row extensive vegetation cover management, particularly through the use of cover crops, on ecosystem services, including supporting, regulating and provisioning services, and biodiversity in vineyards. We also analyzed the role of environmental variables (climate, including precipitation- and temperature-related bioclimatic variables and soil properties, including pH and texture) and irrigation in modulating these effects. The presence of extensive vegetation cover consistently increased biodiversity, as well as supporting ecosystem services in irrigated vineyards and regulating services in rainfed vineyards. Provisioning services, which were evaluated as grape yield, were slightly negatively affected in rainfed vineyards, but not in irrigated ones. The effects of vegetation cover on ecosystem services varied depending on the climate and edaphic characteristics of vineyards. For example, supporting ecosystem services were favored in acidic soils and were also positively related to the precipitation of the wettest quarter, whereas regulating services were particularly enhanced in alkaline soils and in locations with lower temperatures of the wettest quarter. Biodiversity was especially favored in locations with lower precipitation seasonality. Taken together, our study indicates the importance of developing strategies for the adaptive management of extensive vegetation covers tailored to the climatic and edaphic conditions of each vineyard. This adaptive management, combined with irrigation and potentially other locally-tailored adaptive strategies, could also contribute to further mitigate potential negative effects of vegetation cover on grape production while maximizing other ecosystem services such as provisioning and supporting services and biodiversity.