Strigolactones are endogenous plant hormones regulating plant development and are exuded into the rhizosphere when plants experience nutrient deficiency. There, they promote the mutualistic association of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi that help the plant with the uptake of nutrients from the soil. This shows that plants actively establish—through the exudation of strigolactones—mutualistic interactions with microbes to overcome inadequate nutrition. The signaling function of strigolactones could possibly extend to other microbial partners, but the effect of strigolactones on the global root and rhizosphere microbiome remains poorly understood. Therefore, we analyzed the bacterial and fungal microbial communities of 16 rice genotypes differing in their root strigolactone exudation. Using multivariate analyses, distinctive differences in the microbiome composition were uncovered depending on strigolactone exudation. Moreover, the results of regression modeling showed that structural differences in the exuded strigolactones affected different sets of microbes. In particular, orobanchol was linked to the relative abundance of Burkholderia–Caballeronia–Paraburkholderia and Acidobacteria that potentially solubilize phosphate, while 4-deoxyorobanchol was associated with the genera Dyella and Umbelopsis. With this research, we provide new insight into the role of strigolactones in the interplay between plants and microbes in the rhizosphere.