Germination of penicillium paneum Conidia is regulated by 1-octen-3-ol, a volatile self-inhibitor

Gilma S Chitarra, Tjakko Abee, Frank M Rombouts, Maarten A Posthumus, Jan Dijksterhuis

    Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan wetenschappelijk tijdschrift/periodieke uitgaveArtikelWetenschappelijkpeer review

    150 Citaten (Scopus)


    Penicillium paneum is an important contaminant of cereal grains which is able to grow at low temperature, low pH, high levels of carbon dioxide, and under acid conditions. P. paneum produces mycotoxins, which may be harmful to animals and humans. We found that conidia in dense suspensions showed poor germination, suggesting the presence of a self-inhibitor. A volatile compound(s) produced by these high-density conditions also inhibited mycelial growth of different species of fungi belonging to a variety of genera, suggesting a broad action range. The heat-stable compound was isolated by successive centrifugation of the supernatant obtained from spore suspensions with a density of 10(9) conidia ml(-1). By using static headspace analyses, two major peaks were distinguished, with the highest production of these metabolites after 22 h of incubation at 25 degrees C and shaking at 140 rpm. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectra analysis revealed the compounds to be 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol. Notably, only the latter compound appeared to block the germination process at different developmental stages of the conidia (swelling and germ tube formation). In this study, 1-octen-3-ol influenced different developmental processes during the P. paneum life cycle, including induction of microcycle conidiation and inhibition of spore germination. Therefore, the compound can be considered a fungal hormone during fungal development.

    Originele taal-2Engels
    Pagina's (van-tot)2823-9
    Aantal pagina's7
    TijdschriftApplied and Environmental Microbiology
    Nummer van het tijdschrift5
    StatusGepubliceerd - mei 2004


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