Classically, we think of cell compartmentalization as being achieved by membrane-bound organelles. It has nevertheless emerged that membrane-less assemblies also largely contribute to this compartmentalization. Here, we compare the characteristics of both types of compartmentalization in term of maintenance of functional identities. Furthermore, membrane less-compartments are critical for sustaining developmental and cell biological events as they control major metabolic pathways. We describe two examples related to this issue in Drosophila, the role of P-bodies in the translational control of gurken in the Drosophila oocyte, and the formation of Sec bodies upon amino-acid starvation in Drosophila cells.