A significant proportion of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients develop peritoneal metastases (PM) in the course of their disease. PMs are associated with a poor quality of life, significant morbidity and dismal disease outcome. To improve care for this patient group, a better understanding of the molecular characteristics of CRC-PM is required. Here we present a comprehensive molecular characterization of a cohort of 52 patients. This reveals that CRC-PM represent a distinct CRC molecular subtype, CMS4, but can be further divided in three separate categories, each presenting with unique features. We uncover that the CMS4-associated structural protein Moesin plays a key role in peritoneal dissemination. Finally, we define specific evolutionary features of CRC-PM which indicate that polyclonal metastatic seeding underlies these lesions. Together our results suggest that CRC-PM should be perceived as a distinct disease entity.