Fusarium chlamydosporum represents a well-defined morpho-species of both phytopathological and clinical importance. Presently, five phylo-species lacking Latin binomials have been resolved in the F. chlamydosporum species complex (FCSC). Naming these phylo-species is complicated due to the lack of type material for F. chlamydosporum. Over the years a number of F. chlamydosporum isolates (which were formerly identified based on morphology only) have been accessioned in the culture collection of the Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute. The present study was undertaken to correctly identify these 'F. chlamydosporum' isolates based on multilocus phylogenetic inference supported by morphological characteristics. Closer scrutiny of the metadata associated with one of these isolates allowed us to propose a neotype for F. chlamydosporum. Phylogenetic inference revealed the presence of nine phylo-species within the FCSC in this study. Of these, eight could be provided with names supported by subtle morphological characters. In addition, a new species, as F. nodosum, is introduced in the F. sambucinum species complex and F. chlamydosporum var. fuscum is raised to species level, as F. coffeatum, in the F. incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC).