Increasing agricultural intensification has put farmland bird populations under great stress. Although organically managed farms tend to have higher densities of farmland birds than conventionally managed holdings, differences in crop management may also lead to differences in breeding success. With the use of agrochemicals prohibited on organic farms, weeds are controlled using mechanical methods that may pose a threat to ground-nesting birds. This study compares the territory densities and nesting success of the Lapwing Vanellus vanellus on organic and conventional arable farms in the Netherlands. Territory densities were generally higher on organic farms, although in one year nesting success was lower on organic than on conventional farms. This was caused by higher nest loss resulting from farming activities on organic farms. There were no differences in predation rates. The results of this study show that breeding Lapwings may face potential threats on organic farms. To sustain or enhance Lapwing populations on these farms, additional conservation measures should be implemented.