The newly discovered systematic placement of Bactrodesmium abruptum, the lectotype species of the genus, prompted a re-evaluation of the traditionally broadly conceived genus Bactrodesmium. Fresh material, axenic cultures and new DNA sequence data of five gene regions of six species, i.e. B. abruptum, B. diversum, B. leptopus, B. obovatum, B. pallidum and B. spilomeum, were studied. Bactrodesmium is a strongly resolved lineage in the Savoryellales (Sordariomycetes), supported by Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods. The genus Bactrodesmium is emended and delimited to hyphomycetes characterised by sporodochial conidiomata, mononematous often fasciculate conidiophores, holoblastic conidiogenesis and acrogenous, solitary, dry, pigmented, transversely or rarely longitudinally septate conidia. The conidia are seceding rhexolytically, exhibiting multiple secession patterns. An identification key to 35 species accepted in Bactrodesmium is given, providing the most important diagnostic characters. Novel DNA sequence data of B. longisporum and B. stilboideum confirmed their placement in the Sclerococcales (Eurotiomycetes). For other Bactrodesmium, molecular data are available for B. cubense and B. gabretae, which position them in the Dothideomycetes and Leotiomycetes, respectively. All four species are excluded from Bactrodesmium and segregated into new genera, Aphanodesmium, Gamsomyces and Kaseifertia. Classification of 20 other species and varieties not recognised in the genus is discussed. Based on new collections of Dematiosporium aquaticum, the type species of Dematiosporium, the genus is emended to accommodate monodictys-like freshwater lignicolous fungi of the Savoryellales characterised by effuse colonies, holoblastic conidiogenous cells and dictyosporous, pigmented conidia with a pore in each cell. Study of additional new collections, cultures and DNA sequence data revealed several unknown species, which are proposed as taxonomic novelties in the Savoryellales and closely related Pleurotheciales. Ascotaiwania latericolla, Helicoascotaiwania lacustris and Pleurotheciella erumpens are described from terrestrial, lentic and lotic habitats from New Zealand and France, respectively. New combinations are proposed for Helicoascotaiwania farinosa and Neoascotaiwania fusiformis. Relationships and systematics of the Savoryellales are discussed in the light of recent phylogenies and morphological patterns newly linked with the order through cultural studies.