Species of Septoria are commonly associated with leaf spot diseases of a broad range of plant hosts worldwide. During our investigation of fungi associated with leaf spot diseases in northern and northwestern Iran, several Septoria isolates were recovered from symptomatic leaves on different herbaceous and woody plants in the Asteraceae, Betulaceae, and Salicaceae families. These isolates were studied by applying a polyphasic approach including morphological and cultural data and a multigene phylogeny using a combined data set of partial sequences of the 28S nuc rRNA gene (large subunit [28S]), internal transcribed spacer regions and intervening 5.8S nuc rRNA gene (ITS) of the nuc rDNA operon, actin (actA), translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1), calmodulin (cmdA), ?-tubulin (tub2), and DNA-directed RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2). Four novel species are proposed, namely, Septoria eclipticola on Eclipta prostrata, Septoria firouraghina on Cirsium arvense, Septoria guilanensis on Populus deltoides, and Septoria taleshana on Alnus subcordata. All species are illustrated, and their morphology and phylogenetic relationships with other Septoria species are discussed.