Coniothyrium-like fungi are common wood and soil inhabitants and hyperparasites on other fungi. They belong to different fungal genera within the Pleosporales. Several isolates were obtained on wood of different Prunus species (plum, peach and nectarine) from South Africa, on Actinidia species from Italy and on Laurus nobilis from Turkey. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as DNA sequence data (5.8S nrDNA, ITS1, ITS2, partial SSU nrDNA) were used to characterise them. The isolates belonged to three species of the recently established genus Paraconiothyrium. This is the first report of Paraconiothyrium brasiliense on Prunus spp. from South Africa. Two new species are described, namely Paraconiothyrium variabile sp. nov. on Prunus persica and Prunus salicina from South Africa, on Actinidia spp. from Italy and on Laurus nobilis from Turkey, and Paraconiothyrium africanum sp. nov. on Prunus persica from South Africa. Although other known species of Paraconiothyrium commonly produce aseptate conidia, those of P. africanum and P. hawaiiense comb. nov. are predominantly two-celled.