Peyer's patches consist of domains of specialized intestinal epithelium overlying gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Luminal antigens reach the GALT by translocation through epithelial gatekeeper cells, the so-called M cells. We recently demonstrated that all epithelial cells required for the digestive functions of the intestine are generated from Lgr5-expressing stem cells. Here, we show that M cells also derive from these crypt-based Lgr5 stem cells. The Ets family transcription factor SpiB, known to control effector functions of bone marrow-derived immune cells, is specifically expressed in M cells. In SpiB(-/-) mice, M cells are entirely absent, which occurs in a cell-autonomous fashion. It has been shown that Tnfsf11 (RankL) can induce M cell development in vivo. We show that in intestinal organoid ("minigut") cultures, stimulation with RankL induces SpiB expression within 24 h and expression of other M cell markers subsequently. We conclude that RankL-induced expression of SpiB is essential for Lgr5 stem cell-derived epithelial precursors to develop into M cells.