Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Tubakia s. lat.
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The genus Tubakia is revised on the basis of morphological and phylogenetic data. The phylogenetic affinity of Tubakia to the family Melanconiellaceae (Diaporthales) was recently postulated, but new analyses based on sequences retrieved from material of the type species of Tubakia, T. dryina, support a family of its own, viz. Tubakiaceae fam. nov. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed the heterogeneity of Tubakia s. lat. which is divided into several genera, viz., Tubakia s. str., Apiognomonioides gen. nov. (type species: Apiognomonioides supraseptata), Involutiscutellula gen. nov. (type species: Involutiscutellula rubra), Oblongisporothyrium gen. nov. (type species: Oblongisporothyrium castanopsidis), Paratubakia gen. nov. (type species: Paratubakia subglobosa), Racheliella gen. nov. (type species: Racheliella wingfieldiana sp. nov.), Saprothyrium gen. nov. (type species: Saprothyrium thailandense) and Sphaerosporithyrium gen. nov. (type species: Sphaerosporithyrium mexicanum sp. nov.). Greeneria saprophytica is phylogenetically closely allied to Racheliella wingfieldiana and is therefore reallocated to Racheliella. Particular emphasis is laid on a revision and phylogenetic analyses of Tubakia species described from Japan and North America. Almost all North American collections of this genus were previously referred to as T. dryina s. lat., which is, however, a heterogeneous complex. Several new North American species have recently been described. The new species Sphaerosporithyrium mexicanum, Tubakia melnikiana and T. sierrafriensis, causing leaf spots on several oak species found in the North-Central Mexican state Aguascalientes and the North-Eastern Mexican state Nuevo León, are described, illustrated, and compared with similar species. Several additional new species are introduced, including Tubakia californica based on Californian collections on various species of the genera Chrysolepis, Notholithocarpus and Quercus, and T. dryinoides, T. oblongispora, T. paradryinoides, and Paratubakia subglobosoides described on the basis of Japanese collections. Tubakia suttoniana nom. nov., based on Dicarpella dryina, is a species closely allied to T. californica and currently only known from Europe. Tubakia dryina, type species of Tubakia, is epitypified, and the phylogenetic position and circumscription of Tubakia are clarified. A revised, supplemented key to the species of Tubakia and allied genera on the basis of conidiomata is provided.