Quantitative and qualitative protein characteristics are regulated at genomic, transcriptomic, and posttranscriptional levels. Here, we integrated in-depth transcriptome and proteome analyses of liver tissues from two rat strains to unravel the interactions within and between these layers. We obtained peptide evidence for 26,463 rat liver proteins. We validated 1,195 gene predictions, 83 splice events, 126 proteins with nonsynonymous variants, and 20 isoforms with nonsynonymous RNA editing. Quantitative RNA sequencing and proteomics data correlate highly between strains but poorly among each other, indicating extensive nongenetic regulation. Our multilevel analysis identified a genomic variant in the promoter of the most differentially expressed gene Cyp17a1, a previously reported top hit in genome-wide association studies for human hypertension, as a potential contributor to the hypertension phenotype in SHR rats. These results demonstrate the power of and need for integrative analysis for understanding genetic control of molecular dynamics and phenotypic diversity in a system-wide manner.