The increased availability of ultra-high-field (UHF) MRI has led to its application in a wide range of neuroimaging studies, which are showing promise in transforming fundamental approaches to human neuroscience. This review presents recent work on structural and functional brain imaging, at 7 T and higher field strengths. After a short outline of the effects of high field strength on MR images, the rapidly expanding literature on UHF applications of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-based functional MRI is reviewed. Structural imaging is then discussed, divided into sections on imaging weighted by relaxation time, including quantitative relaxation time mapping, phase imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping, angiography, diffusion-weighted imaging, and finally magnetization-transfer imaging. The final section discusses studies using the high spatial resolution available at UHF to identify explicit links between structure and function. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.