ABSTRACTThe Diaporthales (Sordariomycetes) includes many important families of plant pathogenic fungi, such as the notorious Cryphonectriaceae. The aim of the present study was to reevaluate this family, along with other families in Diaporthales. Based on phylogenetic analyses using combined sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, large subunit of the nrDNA (28S), and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-α) and DNA-directed RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2) genes, Cryphonectriaceae is separated into two subclades, comprising 21 genera and 55 species. Foliocryphiaceae, fam. nov., is morphologically and phylogenetically its closest relative but is distinct due to its phylogeny and dimorphic conidia. Mastigosporellaceae, fam. nov., is distinguished from other families in Diaporthales by owning apical conidial appendages. Neocryphonectria, gen. nov., within the family Foliocryphiaceae, with two species associated with Carpinus canker in China, is characterized by fusoid, aseptate macroconidia. Additionally, two new combinations are proposed, namely, Cryphonectria citrine, based on Chromendothia citrine, and Cytospora viridistroma, based on Endothia viridistoma. Based on results obtained in this study, 31 families are accepted into Diaporthales.