Dendrostoma was recently proposed in Erythrogloeaceae (Diaporthales, Sordariomycetes), with all known members recorded as being plant pathogenic on economically important tree hosts. During our collections of Dendrostoma species in China, mild to severe canker symptoms were observed on sweet chestnut (Castanea mollissima) and oak (Quercus spp.) trees. Dead and dying plant tissues exhibiting Dendrostoma canker symptoms were sampled for fungal isolation. A total of 37 Dendrostoma isolates were obtained and analysed using morphological characteristics and molecular data (ITS, LSU, RPB2, TEF1-α). Based on these data, 10 novel clades could be distinguished, which also proved to represent morphologically distinct species described here as Dendrostoma aurorae, D. castaneae, D. castaneicola, D. chinense, D. dispersum, D. parasiticum, D. qinlingense, D. quercus, D. shaanxiense and D. shandongense spp. nov. A key to species of the genus is also provided.