We developed a new class of inhibitors of protein-protein interactions of the SHP2 phosphatase, which is pivotal in cell signaling and represents a central target in the therapy of cancer and rare diseases. Currently available SHP2 inhibitors target the catalytic site or an allosteric pocket but lack specificity or are ineffective for disease-associated SHP2 mutants. Considering that pathogenic lesions cause signaling hyperactivation due to increased levels of SHP2 association with cognate proteins, we developed peptide-based molecules with nanomolar affinity for the N-terminal Src homology domain of SHP2, good selectivity, stability to degradation, and an affinity for pathogenic variants of SHP2 that is 2-20 times higher than for the wild-type protein. The best peptide reverted the effects of a pathogenic variant (D61G) in zebrafish embryos. Our results provide a novel route for SHP2-targeted therapies and a tool for investigating the role of protein-protein interactions in the function of SHP2.