In a survey on the diversity of microfungi in Spanish soils, two new species of Acremonium were found. Both species were characterized as having more or less erect, mostly branched conidiophores bearing whorls of acicular phialides. In addition, one of these species, Acremonium asperulatum, produced abundant chlamydospores and globose rough-walled conidia. The other species, Acremonium variecolor, produced a brownish diffusible pigment and smooth-walled, subglobose conidia with apiculate base; sessile conidia inserted directly on vegetative hyphae also were present. The analysis of the sequences of the ITS region, the D1/D2 domains of the 28S rRNA gene and a fragment of the actin gene revealed relationships of both species with members of the Bionectriaceae (Hypocreales). Genetic differences were observed with morphologically similar species.