The study was conducted to compare species richness and diversity in different ecosystems and abiotic factors. The results showed that the sacred groves had a plant genetic diversity composed of a total of 42, 65 and 82 ethno-botanical species of herbs, shrubs and trees, respectively, with varied qualities. There were six herbaceous species common in the fallow ecosystem and the sacred groves, 35 herbaceous species found in the sacred grove and absent in the fallow vegetation and 70 herbaceous species in the fallow vegetation and absent in the ground layer of the sacred groves. Thirty-two regenerated species and 49 nonregenerated tree species were found in the sacred groves. The herbaceous -diversity was significantly higher in the fallows than the sacred groves at the low altitude. The tree species richness was higher at the low altitude compared to the high altitude with tree -diversity increasing with altitude. Varying combinations of soil pH, total P, total K, CEC and slope per cent were related to some of the parameters evaluated. Biodiversity changes in the sacred groves may be governed by biophysical drivers, while a combination of human and biophysical explained the variation in rotational fallow vegetation.