Soil microbiota plays fundamental roles in maintaining ecosystem functions and services, including biogeochemical processes and plant productivity. Despite the ubiquity of soil microorganisms from the topsoil to deeper layers, their vertical distribution and contribution to element cycling in subsoils remain poorly understood. Here, nine soil profiles (0 to 135 cm) were collected at the local scale (within 300 km) from two canonical paddy soil types (Fe-accumuli and Hapli stagnic anthrosols), representing redoximorphic and oxidative soil types, respectively. Variations with depth in edaphic characteristics and soil bacterial and diazotrophic community assemblies and their associations with element cycling were explored. The results revealed that nitrogen and iron status were the most distinguishing edaphic characteristics of the two soil types throughout the soil profile. The acidic Fe-accumuli stagnic anthrosols were characterized by lower concentrations of free iron oxides and total iron in topsoil and ammonia in deeper layers compared with the Hapli stagnic anthrosols. The bacterial and diazotrophic community assemblies were mainly shaped by soil depth, followed by soil type. Random forest analysis revealed that nitrogen and iron cycling were strongly correlated in Fe-accumuli stagnic anthrosol, whereas in Hapli soil, available sulfur was the most important variable predicting both nitrogen and iron cycling. The distinctive biogeochemical processes could be explained by the differences in enrichment of microbial taxa between the two soil types. The main discriminant clades were the iron-oxidizing denitrifier Rhodanobacter, Actinobacteria, and diazotrophic taxa (iron-reducing Geobacter, Nitrospirillum, and Burkholderia) in Fe-accumuli stagnic anthrosol and the sulfur-reducing diazotroph Desulfobacca in Hapli stagnic anthrosol.